PAR PREVIEW - MAY 2015
PAR Preview is a monthly newsletter that calls attention to forthcoming articles in PAR. PAR Preview provides brief summaries of content now available digitally in Early View, Wiley’s online publication system.
The Job of Government: Interweaving Public Functions and Private Hands
Donald F. Kettl (University of Maryland) discusses his article titled “The Job of Government: Interweaving Public Functions and Private Hands.” This article is currently available in Public Administration Review Issue 75, Volume 2. Link to PAR Podcast.
Does Twitter Increase Perceived Police Legitimacy?
Stephan Grimmelikhuijsen (Utrecht School of Governance) discusses his article co-authored with Albert J. Meijer (Utrecht School of Governance) titled “Does Twitter Increase Perceived Police Legitimacy?” This article is currently available on Early View and will be printed in Public Administration Review, Issue 75, Volume 4. Link to PAR Podcast.
Serving Clients When the Server Crashes: How Frontline Workers Cope with E-Government Challenges
Philip Rocco (University of California, Berkeley) discusses his article co-authored with Lars Tummers (Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands) titled “Serving Clients When the Server Crashes: How Frontline Workers Cope with E-Government Challenges.” This article is currently available on Early View and will be printed in Public Administration Review, Issue 75, Volume 5. Link to PAR Podcast.
Advice Networks in Public Organizations: The Role of Structure, Internal Competition, and Individual Attributes
Interpersonal networks are increasingly important for organizational learning and performance. However, little is known about how these networks emerge. In this article, exponential random graph models are employed to explore the underlying processes of advice network formation in 15 organizations. Michael D. Siciliano (University of Illinois at Chicago) examines the influence of (1) structural effects (reciprocity, transitivity, multiplexity), (2) actor attribute effects (job function, tenure, education, self-efficacy), and (3) peer competition. Results suggest that employees rely more on reciprocity, closure, and similarity in job function than on peer expertise or status when seeking advice. In addition, employees who perceive greater levels of competition with peers are significantly less likely to both seek and provide advice. As public organizations look to private sector strategies that promote internal competition to improve efficiency and accountability, public managers need to be aware of the negative implications those strategies can have on interpersonal networks and organizational learning. Read in PAR Early View.
The Impact of Fiscal Crisis on Decision-Making Processes in European Governments: Dynamics of a Centralization Cascade
The Great Recession resulted in fiscal crises for governments across the Western world. Significant cuts in government programs were initiated as many governments scrambled to reduce their growing budget deficits. Ringa Raudla (Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia), James W. Douglas (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Tiina Randma-Liiv, and Riin Savi (Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia) explore how European governments reacted during the recent crisis. In particular, they focus on the shifts toward more centralized decision-making. The article uses a survey of thousands of public sector executives in 17 European countries. The authors find evidence of a centralization cascade, such that centralizing one element of the decision-making process leads to greater centralization throughout the system. Results also show that having a high number of organizational goals and facing clear sanctions for failing to achieve goals lead to greater centralization, but greater organizational commitment reduces the need to centralize. Read in PAR Early View.
Citizen Participation in Budgeting: A Trade-Off between Knowledge and Inclusiveness?
Research on citizen participation has noted a tension between fostering an inclusive policy-making process and simultaneously maintaining a competent pool of participating citizens. Sounman Hong (Yonsei University, South Korea) investigates the implications of this trade-off by testing the impact of measured levels of inclusiveness and participating citizens’ knowledgeability on two performance metrics: citizen engagement and process efficiency. Results indicate that although inclusiveness may be negatively associated with the level of engagement, both knowledgeability and inclusiveness are positively associated with process efficiency. Overall, the findings suggest that policy makers can pursue the democratic ideal of opening policy making to the citizenry while still maintaining an efficient process. Read in PAR Early View.
Is Leadership in the Eye of the Beholder? A Study of Intended and Perceived Leadership Practices and Organizational Performance
Leadership is a matter of both intentions and perceptions, which do not necessarily always match. Because employees’ motivation and commitment are only affected by leadership if they notice it, employee-perceived leadership is expected to have a stronger correlation with organizational performance than leader-intended leadership. This expectation is tested for transformational and transactional leadership, as both types of practices are expected to increase performance. Using a sample of 1,621 teachers and 79 Danish high school principals, Christian Bøtcher Jacobsen and Lotte Bøgh Andersen (Aarhus University, Denmark) find that leader-intended and employee-perceived transformational and transactional leadership are only weakly correlated and that only employee-perceived leadership practices (both transformational and transactional) are significantly related to objectively measured school performance. The results show that it is important to distinguish between intended and perceived leadership and that leaders should be aware of how their practices are perceived. Read in PAR Early View.